(July 13 - 21, 2011) Ironically, the most difficult issue with winegrowing in Arizona is frost. Most people find this surprising because Arizona is known for very hot temperatures, but since most of the vineyards are located in the high desert at 4200 to 5200 feet in elevation, it can get quite cold at certain times of the year. In years where the frost arrives during bud break, a large percentage of the crop can be at risk.
Arizona now boasts 45 wineries, and though I had visited wineries in the Sonorita region south of Tucson several years ago, imagine my delight when I arrived in Sedona this week (one of the most beautiful places on earth) and discovered they have 8 wineries within a 30 mile radius of the town. Sedona is already very magical with magnificent red rock formations, numerous hiking trails, great restaurants, and a mystical aura due to its vortexes. Now with the presence of small family wineries producing some very high quality wines, Sedona, located two hours north of Phoenix, is even more alluring.
Three Main Wine Growing Regions in Arizona
In addition to the Sedona region (also referred to as the Verde Valley area), there are two other grape growing areas. The oldest is the Sonorita/Elgin region south of Tucson. It has the largest number of wineries and also boasts the only AVA in Arizona at this time (Sonorita AVA). The third region is southeast of Tucson near Wilcox in Cochise County. Both of these more southern regions have larger vineyard acreage than Sedona area wineries, which often purchase the southern grapes to supplement their smaller vineyard production.
Major Grape Varietals in Arizona – A Focus on Reds
Like many newer US wine regions, it appears that Arizona is currently experimenting with many types of grape varietals. I tasted everything from nebiollo to gewürztraminer, but the wines that I preferred (and that also seem to be gaining high scores from the critics) were their reds.
I came away very impressed with several 100% grenache wines, as well as GSM’s (grenache, syrah, mouvedre) from all 3 regions. It is logical that with daytime temperature soaring into the 90’s and low 100’s that they would produce such excellent warm climate varietals. Fortunately the temperature in the high desert drops dramatically at night, so the grapes are able to preserve their flavors and acid.
Red Italian grape varietals also appear to be doing well here – especially in the Sedona area. I tasted some very nice barbera, sangiovese, and a blush nebiollo. At the same time, there were also some very decent merlots, cabernet sauvignons, blends of such, and even zinfandel.
In terms of whites, I tasted several chardonnays, but found them to have bitter finishes. Two white varietals which appear to do well here are viognier and malvasia bianca.
Favorite Arizona Wines on This Trip & Kudos to Arizona Wine Tourism
Though I must admit that I spent more time hiking in Sedona than I did tasting wine, I did manage to visit some wineries and wine-tasting rooms. One thing that very much impressed me was Arizona’s focus on wine tourism. There were several generic wine tasting businesses in Sedona and one in Cottonwood that allowed you to taste a wide variety of Arizona wines. In addition, every place I turned I found an Arizona wine brochure, map, or magazine, and the wine signage along the roads was great.
Altogether I tried 14 different wines and came away with six favorites:
2009 Dos Cabezas El Norte from Cochise County ($40) – A GSM (23% grenache, 42% syrah, and 35% mouvedre) with a bright berry nose and palate, complex spices and long finish.
2009 Page Spring Cellars from Sedona area ($40) – blend of 6 red varietals. Dark red fruit, cloves, earthy notes, complex with good acid and long finish. Similar in style and taste to a medium-bodied Super Tuscan
2010 Caduceus Cellars Dos Ladrones from Sedona area ($25) a delightful blend of malvasia bianca and chardonnay with floral nose, peach notes, good texture on palate and medium-high acid. Very refreshing.
2010 Caduceus Cellars Lei Li Rose from Sedona area ($40) –a rather unusual, though very delightful, rose of nebiollo with fragrant cherry nose, dry fruit palate, chalky tannins and a nice high acid finish.
2008 Oak Creek Vineyard Zinfandel ($35) – classic jammy zin nose, medium-bodied ripe berry fruit with spice and pepper. Made in a more elegant style with balanced alcohol and medium plus acid.
Arizona Vineyards and Terrior
I was able to visit two wineries in the Sedona area and see the vineyards. The soil is primarily volcanic. One vineyard was on level land with 8 x 12 spacing and VSP trellis. The other was on a steep rocky terrace. They both had irrigation, deer fencing, and bird netting. Since I hadn’t made advance appointments, I couldn’t find anyone in the tasting rooms who could describe rootstocks, clones, canopy management, disease, pests, etc.
At a tasting room in Sedona that featured wines from around Arizona, the pourer challenged me to identify the “terrior of the state.” One feature I found in all the wines I tasted was a ripe fruity nose – no bashful wines here. With the wines from the southern regions of Cochise County and Sonorita, I found a higher alcohol level with medium acid, and an intriguing note of dark bitter chocolate and sage. The Sedona region wines seemed to have more moderate alcohol and higher acid, but I couldn’t find any distinctive and replicating notes in the ones I tasted. Guess, I just need to go back for another visit and try more wines.
For more information on Arizona wineries, see
Saturday, July 23, 2011
Tuesday, July 5, 2011
(June 24-28, 2011) Did you know there are now 42 wineries in Wisconsin? This was one of the amazing facts I learned during my four day visit at the invitation of my good friend Peg. In addition to touring three wineries, we had a wonderful time sight-seeing in downtown Milwaukee. I was very impressed with the bustling businesses, the amazing architecture of the Milwaukee Art Museum, the historic mansions along Lake Michigan and the charming Third Ward. Peg also treated me to great food and wine, boat rides, and the chance to meet her fascinating friends.
We obtained a copy of the Wineries of Wisconsin Tour Guide and I was surprised to see that the wineries are spread all over the state. Wisconsin is especially known for fruit wines, such as strawberry, peach, blackberry and many others. Many of these wineries are clustered in the Door County Region. Since I am a grape wine person, we focused on visiting wineries that were best known for this and had won national awards for their wines.
Cedar Creek Winery in Cedarburg Wisconsin (www.cedarcreekwinery.com)
The first winery we visited was Cedar Creek during the mad rush of the Strawberry Festival. When Steve, the general manager, greeted us, he said it was one of their busiest days of the year. I was thrilled to see so many people crowding the tasting room to buy cases of wine, as well as to purchase wine by the glass and carry it around in the festival.
Despite the crazy atmosphere, Steve was kind enough to give us a guided tour of the cellar, show us the bottling line, and explain how their wine was made. Cedar Creek Winery started in 1970 and now produces around 27,000 cases per year, which is sold primarily in Wisconsin via wholesalers and direct to consumer. They are owned by Wollersheim Winery where most of the wine, with the exception of the unoaked chardonnay, is produced.
Steve said their biggest selling wine is the Cedar Creek Vidal Blanc. It is a semi-dry crisp white wine that has won numerous awards at wine competitions in the US. We tasted through 4 wines and they were all well made. My favorite was the 2010 Cedar Creek Waterfall Riesling with a lovely nose of apricot, slight residual sugar, but with such a crisp acid that the sugar is barely noticeable. Very refreshing. Since it was the Strawberry Festival, I also tried the 2010 Cedar Creek Strawberry Blush wine which is made by adding strawberry juice to vidal and seyval blanc. It was fun and sweet – like a strawberry lolli-pop; a perfect entry wine.
Cedar Creek is shipping grapes from Washington State and New York, as well as buying local fruit for the fruit wines. All together they produce 14 different wines, including a port. I left feeling very impressed at such an “energetic operation” in the charming historic town of Cedarburg.
Wollersheim Winery in Prairie du Sac (www.wollersheim.com)
It took us about 2 hours to drive from Milwaukee to Prairie du Sac and the scenery was lovely. We drove through rolling hills covered with green trees and lakes. We passed charming farms with quaint farmhouses, tall silos, old barns, and dairy cows. The main crops we saw were corn and wheat, and I was thrilled to see so many Sandhill Cranes with their babies in the fields.
As we came to the entrance of Wollersheim Winery it was so impressive that it seemed we were in Napa or Sonoma. Of course Wollersheim has always been a famous winery and I teach my students about it in wine class because Agoston Haraszthy, the Father of California Winemaking, came here first in 1847 when he left his native Hungary. He spent two years planting grapes and trying to start a winery, but left in 1849 to start Buena Vista Winery in Sonoma. Wollersheim was purchased by a German who planted Riesling and buried the vines every year to protect them from the harsh Wisconsin winters. Eventually in 1972 the current family purchased the property.
We were greeted by Julie Wollersheim and her husband, Philippe Coquard, who came from France to Wisconsin as a student and fell in love with Julie. Today they both run the winery with Philippe making the wine and Julie managing marketing. They provided us with a fascinating 2 hour tour starting in the vineyards and culminating in the cellars where we tasted through most of their excellent wines. Wollersheim Winery produces around 54,000 cases per year and makes 18 different wines.
I was impressed to see the 24 acres of vineyard which seemed very healthy and well-tended. Spacing was wide so a tractor could easily fit between the rows – approximately 12 by 8 feet. Trellising was high to keep the grapes away from the cooler ground, and Phillipe called it a “top cordon” system. The vines are Marechal Foch, Concord, Millot, La Crosse, and St. Pepin – all hybrids that can withstand the harsh Wisconsin winters. I had never heard of St. Pepin which is used for Ice Wine, and Philippe explained that it was developed in Wisconsin and required that LaCrosse be planted next to it for fertilization – very rare now days for grapes. The other famous grape that requires another vine and the wind for fertilization is the Keknyelu grape of Hungary.
In the cellar everything was modern with stainless steel tanks for fermentation, filters, and protective gas. We started with their signature white, 2010 Wollersheim Prairie Fume, which has a lovely grapefruit and lemon nose which follows through on the palate and a crisp acid, a touch of sweetness and a long dry finish. It reminded me of sauvignon blanc, but Phillipe explained that it was 100% Seyval Blanc from New York. He has it harvested at 19 brix and shipped to Wisconsin where he performs a cool fermentation to around 10% alcohol and 1.2% residual sugar. The result is stunning, and makes a wonderful sipping and food wine – very refreshing. It has won many medals and Phillipe calls it “the wine that opened the door to our brand.”
In the barrel room we tasted the amazing 2009 Wollersheim Domaine Reserve which is 98% Marechal Foch and 2% Millot. The wine was lovely – similar to a full bodied pinot noir with red berry notes, spice, firm tannins, and a good acid. Then Phillipe invited us to taste the wine from two different barrels. The first was half Wisconsin and half French oak with Wisconsin heads – this was more tannic. The second was the same but with French heads – this was more elegant with well-integrated tannins. It was fascinating to taste the difference. Phillipe also experiments with oak from Missouri, Michigan, and Minnesota. Another interesting fact is that Phillipe is experimenting with thermo-vinification on the Marechal Foch to soften tannins.
We ended the tour by tasting their white, red, and tawny port – all good!, as well as the whiskey is he starting to make. Though the Ice Wine was not ready to taste, Julie and Phillipe were kind enough to send us home with a bottle for the future. I left Wollersheim Winery very impressed with the high quality of winemaking, and especially for the passion and innovative spirit of the owners and employees.
Vetro Winery in Concord Wisconsin (www.VetroWine.com)
On the drive back to Milwaukee we stopped at the small and charming Vetro Winery in Concord, about 4 miles off the Interstate. This was a true small family winery with the tasting room in a small building next to the family house. The view from the winery was lovely – looking down a hill towards a small pond and the vineyard.
I was again happy to see that the tasting room was busy with two other groups dropping by to taste and purchase wine. The owner, who was running the tasting room by herself, was so busy ringing up sales she had a hard time pouring for us. However, I made things easy by explaining that I only wanted to taste wines from the vineyard. She kindly poured me Vetro Winery Nun on the Run which is a dry red wine made from the Millot grape. It was similar to a light pinot noir but had a very bitter finish. I enjoyed the second wine better, which was called Vetro Winery Wap-a-tu-e. This was a blend of Delaware, Niagara, La Crosse, and Concord grapes – all American varietals or hybrids. Though sweet, it was well made and quite pleasant to drink for an aperitif with ripe berry flavors and a pleasing finish.
It was interesting to notice that the other people at the tasting bar were trying all of the fruit wines. Vetro Winery provides an excellent selection of these, including blueberry, cranberry, blackberry, cherry, raspberry, and strawberry.
My four days in Wisconsin were delightful, and I am pleased to find so many good wineries in that state. As always my heart is cheering for the small family winemakers of America!